Lesson 9

9.1 Directional Adverbs:

9.1.1 Form: Coptic has a set of directional adverbs that corresponds closely to English adverbs such as, 'up, down, over, in, out', etc. They are frequently used to modify the meaning of the verb. The following is a list of the most commonly used adverbs:

ebol out, away epec/t down
eqoun in evahou back, backward
ehr/i up epswi upward

9.1.2 Uses: These adverbs can be used alone, as follows:

afse ebol he went away
afi eqoun he came in
afvwt evahou he ran back

But frequently they are combined with simple prepositions to form a compound prepositional phrase, as follows:

ebol e- out to, away to

ehr/i e- up to

ebol qen out of, from

ehr/i ejen up unto

ebol hi away from

epec/t e- down to, down into

ebol hiten through, through the agency of

epec/t ejen down on

evahou e- back to

eqoun e- to, into, toward

9.2 Conjunction in Verbal Sentences: Clauses containing the first perfect may be coordinated with the conjuctive 'ouoh' 'and', or it may follow one another without a conjuctive, as follows:

a.f.hemci ouoh a.f.rimi he sat down and he wept
a.f.hemci a.f.rimi he sat down (and) he wept



9.3 Vocabulary 9

ehoou m. day mou m. death
mvoou adv. today oube prep. against
kahi m. earth, ground sai m. festival, feast
menenca prep after swpi vb. to become, happen
menencwc afterward --- mmo= vb. to happen to
mou vb. to die hiten prep. through, by agency of
--- eybe vb. to die from

Greek Nouns

de conj. but, however, and cunagwg/ f. synagogue

9.4 Exercises 9: Translate the following into English:

A 1. hiten nek.sl/l 4. ebol qen ].polic
  2. oube nen.cn/ou 5. hiten nef.caji
  3. ebol hiten pai.mwit    

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