2.1 Noun Classifications: Nouns are classified by gender, masculine (m) or feminine (f), and by number, singular (sg) or plural (pl). In most cases there are no distinctions between singular and plural forms of the same noun, only the prefixed article provides such distinction. Examples:
2.2 Definite Article: Coptic uses three distinct characters to define gender and number of a noun. They are 'p' for the singular masculine, 't' for the singular feminine, and 'n' for the plural. This arrangement occurs in many nominal prefixes. The first one that we will deal with is the "Definite Article".
2.2.1 Form: The Bohairic dialect has two distinct types of articles in the singular. The longer form is referred to as 'Strong' and the shorter one is labeled 'Weak'. The definite article is always prefixed to the noun it modifies. In English the definite article is equivalent to 'the'.
|Weak||p- v-||t- y|
126.96.36.199 Singular: Weak articles are used to specify the word in a less exact way, so they are used for generic nouns, abstract nouns, and nouns that are one of a kind. Strong articles on the other hand specify the word in a more exact way by referring to specific person or thing, as follows:
|t.ve||Heaven||].ve m.beri||the new heaven|
188.8.131.52 Plural: For plural articles (both genders) nen- is used only with prefixed nouns, while ni- is used everywhere else, example:
nen.s/rim.p.icra/l The sons of Israel
2.3 Prepositions: In Coptic, prepositions (prep.) are unstressed and bound to the word they govern.
Note: The preposition nem (with) is also used as the conjunctive 'and' in joining two nouns, example:
pi.rwmi nem pi.noubThe man and the gold
2.4 Simple Bipartite Clause: Coptic can achieve full predication (complete sentence) with or without the benefit of a verb. One type of these sentences is called a 'bipartite sentence', which means a sentence made out of two parts. For the sake of brevity, we will deal with only one of the five forms of this sentence construction. To achieve the correct meaning in English, the appropriate form of verb 'to be' is used in the translation.
2.4.1 Affirmative: In the affirmative, the bipartite is formed in the following manner:
Definite noun + Prepositional phrase
(Definite article + Noun )+ (Preposition + Definite article + Noun)
pi.rwmi hi pi.joiThe man is on the ship
2.4.2 Negative: In the negative the sentence form is as follows:
Definite noun + Prepositional phrase + Negative particle
pi.rwmi qen pi./i anThe man is not in the house
|/ou||pl.||houses||qello||m.||old man, monk|
|mwit||m.||road, way||qelloi||pl.||old men, monks|
|nem-||prep.||with, and||qellw||f.||old woman|
|A||1.||hi pi.mwit||8.||nem ni.rwmi|
|2.||hijen pi.twou||9.||nem ].chimi|
|3.||qen pi.mwit||10.||nem pi.qello|
|4.||qen p./i||11.||qa ni./ou|
|5.||qa p./i||12.||hi pi.twou|
|6.||qa pi.wni||13.||qen ni./ou|
|B||1.||ni.rwmi nem ].chimi||3.||pi.noub qa pi.jwm|
|2.||pi.qello hijen pi.twou||4.||ni.jwm qen pi./i an|
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